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Pakistan has reportedly integrated its nuclear-capable Ra’ad-I cruise missile with the JF-17 fighter jet, according to a recent analysis by the Federation of American Scientists (FAS). The Ra’ad, first tested in 2007, is Pakistan’s sole air-launched cruise missile with a potential nuclear capability. The U.S. Air Force National Air and Space Intelligence Center (NASIC) designated it as a “dual-capable system” in 2017, meaning it can be equipped with either conventional or nuclear warheads.

The FAS report analyzed images of a JF-17 Thunder Block II from rehearsals for the 2023 Pakistan Day Parade. This marked the first public observation of the fighter jet carrying the Ra’ad-I missile.

The report further compared these images with those of the Ra’ad displayed at Pakistan Day Parades between 2017 and 2024. While both versions showcased a new engine air intake, it couldn’t definitively determine if it was the original Ra’ad-I or the extended-range Ra’ad-II based solely on external features.

This development raises concerns about potential regional instability and underscores the importance of nuclear non-proliferation efforts.