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India and France have agreed to further cooperation on ambitious submarine projects following the successful conclusion of the Kalvari class submarine program. This partnership hints at a closer working relationship between the two nations as they embark on India’s most ambitious submarine program yet—the development of three nuclear attack submarines for the Indian Navy.

The French Naval Group has been vocal about its interest in collaborating with India on the supply and development of “Non-Nuclear” systems for India’s nuclear attack submarine program. This collaboration opens up possibilities for joint initiatives and technology transfer between the two countries, further strengthening their defence ties.

The Indian Navy has expressed interest in acquiring French-developed pump-jet propulsion for its nuclear attack submarines, as well as for the larger S5 class of Ballistic Missile Submarines (SSBNs) that it plans to develop in the future.

Pump-jet propulsion systems offer advanced capabilities for quick acceleration in shorter times, making them crucial for submarines that require high underwater speeds for effective operations, such as hunting enemy ships and submarines. Furthermore, nuclear attack submarines play a vital role in land attack missions, and their underwater speed is a critical factor in achieving mission objectives.

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