India is set to clear a mega indigenous project to build three nuclear-powered attack submarines under Project-76, unlike 4 Arihant Class Submarines that were funded by the PMO, funds for the 3 SSN-Class nuclear submarine will be coming out of the Navy’s budget even though its share in the last budget shrank. Budget constraints mean plans for new six new conventional submarines might be further delayed, but the Navy is now considering utilizing the Transfer of Technology (ToT) of the Kalvari class submarine obtained from France and Spain to further build up the indigenous technologies and buff up its present fleet of conventional submarines. 

Indian Navy is now considering placing additional orders for 3 more Kalvari class submarines from the Mazagon Dock Shipbuilders with Air Independent Propulsion (AIP) System module that was developed by DRDO. The present fleet of Six Kalvari class submarine will start getting Air Independent Propulsion (AIP) module from 2025 onwards for which the Navy expects at least 8-12 months of downtime for each ship, since submarines need to be cut open and power, plumbing, and other wirings have to be redone before AIP module plug can be integrated, tested and sea trials carried out before it join back the fleet. it is expected that the downtime for other ships might come down.

The second proposal that seems to be gaining traction is a development of a 3 more Kalvari class submarine with a higher percentage of Indigenous content along with an Air Independent Propulsion (AIP) module in addition to a vertical launching system (VLS) module. Often called as “Super Kalvari”, bigger Kalvari class submarines will have revamped internal compartments that might see the use of upgraded core technologies of the submarine along with Navy replacing most of the key foreign supplied systems with local ones in the submarine.

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