China’s infrastructure build-up close to the Line of Actual Control (LAC) is continuing, with new buildings being seen one kilometre behind the buffer zone in the Galwan area.  It was in Galwan that the Indian and Chinese People’s Liberation Army (PLA) clashed last year. After discussions, both sides withdrew from the area, creating a buffer zone. The 10 permanent structures have come up 1 kilometre behind the buffer zone, on the Chinese side of the LAC. These may be winter quarters for PLA soldiers.

• A new construction, either for observation or for the launching of unmanned aerial vehicles or UAVs has been spotted near Fukche, again on the Chinese side of the LAC. It is 6 km from the LAC, but being on a hilltop, has a clear view of positions of Indian securitymen in the area. 

• The PLA is building a tunnel-like structure, again on its side of the LAC. This is behind Mobada La, close to the LAC

• A new road is being built between Sirijap and Khurnak and also, between Moldo and Rudok. Another road is being built along the Pare Chu River.

• Construction in the Depsang area– two small concrete buildings and temporary structures like sheds and barracks have been visible.

The Army chief, General MM Naravane, has also spoken of Chinese infrastructure close to the Line of Actual Control.