Capture of Inner Mongolia 1934– How China subdued and captured the inner Mongolia region in past few hundred years is well known. When mongols living in those areas rose against oppression of Chinese monarchs, they were brutally overpowered with men, little kids murdered, women sold to slavery. Chinese claim over inner Mongolia, is mostly related to long march done before WW2 by the communist army when they were on the run from pursuit by Chiang Kai Shek’ Republic of China army.

It is mostly in inner Mongolia that they found refuge to recover themselves. Even in modern times, after end of WW2, when the mongols of Inner Mongolia were trying to assert their legitimacy, they were brutally suppressed. Can the Chinese government wash its hand off sin to brutally suppress the mongols of Inner Mongolia?

Capture of Xinjiang 1949 – China’s claim to Xinjiang, geographically the largest province is that Turkic Muslims of the Turfan and Kumul Oases had submitted to the Qing dynasty of China and where mere vassals of China. Its well known how much bloodshed was committed by Qing dynasty to hold on to these vassals, but that is history. In modern days after end of WW2, the unrecognized independent soviet backed East Turkestan Republic was in existence in northern Xinjiang from 1944 to 1949, while the rest of Xinjiang was controlled by Chiang Kai Shek’s Republic of China who was later defeated and forced to flee.

He later founding the Republic of China or Taiwan. In a secret deal with Soviets the Chinese captured East Turkestan Republic in 1949, and have since heaped untold misery on Uighur muslims who are nowhere related to han China. China has made Xinjiang an open-air jail; has made every effort to change the demographics of the region, itis said now there are more han Chinese in the region then Uighurs. Numerous rules of oppression by China to keep Xinjiang muslims in a tight leash is well known. Can the Chinese government wash its hand off sin to brutally suppress the muslim Uighurs of Xinjiang? Oh, did anyone one know that India lost its gateway to Central Asia when its consulate in Kashgar town, the 2nd largest city of Xinjiang was closed down in 1949-50.

Capture of Tibet 1950 – China’s claim to Tibet is that it is a region with highly decentralized form of governance and that han Chinese and Tibetan often mixed together and China always helped Tibet to repel attacks from invaders be it Nepalese kingdom or Sikh kingdom. China forgets that following the Xinhai Revolution against the Qing dynasty in 1912, Qing soldiers were disarmed and escorted out of Tibet Area and Tibet subsequently declared its independence in 1913, had diplomatic relations with other nations including British India, issued its own passport, and printed currency. However, after China captured Xinjiang, it next set its eyes on Tibet and sent its troops in 1950 on the pretext of maintaining law and order.

However, actually China did everything to interfere with Tibetan governance and lifestyle and tried to impose its own writ over the region. Since the 1959 failed uprising, after which HH Dalai Lama fled to India; China has made Tibet an open air jail; has made every effort to change the demographics of the region, it is said now there are more han Chinese in Lhasa then Tibetans. If any Tibetan visits India to take part in Kalachakra festival organized by HH Dalai Lama, once they return, they are whisked away to detention centres where they are cleansed of Tibetan teaching and reformatted to communist ideology. Can the Chinese government wash its hand off sin to brutally suppress the Buddhist Tibetans of Tibet? Oh, did anyone one knows that India lost Indian consulate in Lhasa and trade agencies in Yartung, Gyantse and Gartok that were closed after 1962 war.

Illegal Capture of 38000 sq.kms of Aksai Chin (1951 – 62) –China first noticed in 1951 that though India was claiming the Ladakh area and entire Aksai Chin area thanks to the ‘Treaty of Accession Signed by Maharaja Hari Singh where his name read “Shriman Inder Mahinder Rajrajeswar Maharajadhiraj Shri Hari Singhji, Jammu & Kashmir Naresh Tatha Tibbet adi Deshadhipati”thanks to the campaign led by Zorawar Singh Kalhuria from 1835-42 who captured 550 miles inside Western Tibet upto Kaish Mansarovar. But India was not patrolling any part of the area, because due to extreme weather conditions that made Aksai Chin inhospitable This gave cunning China an opening and it started building a road from Yecheng in occupied Xinjiang to Lhatse in occupied Tibet. This was the easiest way to connect  occupied Xinjiang and occupied Tibet as building a road through any other area was economically unsuitable as lot many bridges and tunnels needed to be built and the road would be out of bounds due to snow for nearly 7 months, Whereas Highway 219 is built on relatively flat terrain and remains open all through the year. The road was completed in 1954.


At that time India external foreign intelligence gathering was the responsibility of Intelligence Bureau led by Bhola Nath Mullick. At first BN Mullick didn’t give much importance to this area as it was non focus area about which then PM Jawahar Lal Nehru is alleged to have said ‘mot a blade of grass grows’  But when he was caught off-guard by news of China building Highway 219 requested Indian government to send patrols. The patrols in Aksai Chin area by India started only in 1954, All these units on foot and vehicular patrols were confronted by occupying Han Chinese troops near the highway. Slowly the confrontations grew and despite Panchsheel idea of friendship between the 2 nations, China slowly started grabbing more and more land in the area. This reached a tipping point in 1959 when 10 policemen were killed in a bloody skirmish. This forced PM Nehru to initiate the disastrous ‘forward policy’ to reclaim the lost areas without adequate preparation. This resulted in the India China war of 1962 and India lost 38000 sq.kms of its area in total.

Illegal Capture of 5200 sq.kms of Shaksgam Valley/Trans Karakoram Track (1963) – The Trans-Karakoram Tract is composed of the Shaksgam Valley and was formerly administered as a part of Shigar, a valley in Baltistan region. Most names of mountains, lakes, rivers and passes are in Balti/Ladakhi, meaning this land had been part of Baltistan/Ladakh region for a long time and has no connection with China whatsoever. The only connection with China was that China claimed suzerainty over Hunza, south of Macdonald line as its emir had given nominal allegiance to China in 1847. But suddenly after WW2 ended in 1959, China published maps showing large areas west and south of Macdonald line as part of its territory.

The problem was that this area actually came under district of Gilgit Baltistan which as per Treaty of Accession signed by Maharaja of Jammu & Kashmir was part of princely state of Jammu & Kashmir. Pakistan after illegally occupying district of Gilgit Baltistan in 1947-48 decided to hand over entire Trans Karakoram Track to China in 1963 after China captured Aksai Chin in 1962, despite protests from India using diplomatic channels. It is Trans Karakoram Track that China intends to use to build supporting infrastructure for malefic CPEC. Can Chinese government wash its hand off sin to illegally capturing areas that actually belong to India.

China Builds Artificial Islands in South China Sea

China has been building manmade bases over some of the Spratly Islands in the South China Sea under the supposed ‘Nine Dash Line’ since 2014 despite protests from other nations like Philippines, Malaysia, Vietnam, Brunei, Indonesia, and Japan all lay claim to parts of the sea, which is a valuable trade passage and fishing ground. Not just that China has built Air Défense Zone covering these artificial islands and has been issuing warning to nations including USA and its Nany not to pass anywhere near them. This despite the fact that United Nations under United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS) has forbidden such acts and clearly stated that South China Sea is part of Open Sealine of Communication and Trade Area and no country can obstruct traffic here.

But adamant China continues to build these artificial islands and has even fortified some of them with air defence systems and fighter jets. China says it has historical cla8im over these waters, however some say it actually want to recover sunken ships of once great flotilla in the area, that might contain precious pieces of Chinese history that are invaluable to them. But to do that is it really important to deny others access to area, when UN has clearly said its not done. Something needs to be done as, if this continues time is not far when China will block traffic on the whole of South China Sea.


Truly Han China is a shrewd nation and is only concerned with capturing territory, and uses all types of brutal tactics to retain control over the areas. Be it suppressing Uighur/Tibetans refugees, shooing away Taiwan and lot more. here it needs to be remembered that though people of Machuria are mostly of Korean origin but they have been part of Imperial China for hundreds of years. India has been at the receiving end of Han China expansion. As due to Chinese expansion ad illegal capture of territory, India lost embassy in Lhasa, trade office in Yartung in Tibet, consulate in Kashgharin Xinjiang thereby losing access to Central Asia. The world needs to realize this and stop China’s juggernaut that will only harm this world in long run. It is only India that can put up a fight against expansionist and pseudo communist China, and the global powers like Russia and USA need to help India.

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Article by JOYDEEP GHOSH/,  cannot be republished Partially or Full without consent from Writer or